1. Methods of Criminal Profiling Methods of criminal profiling are scientific knowledge used to help build a profile against an offender, a profile of the crime or crime scene, and/or the victim. These are criminal analysis, diagnostic evaluation, geographic profiling, investigative psychology and much more. A. Criminal Investigative Analysis Criminal investigative analysis is a process in which the investigator reviews the crimes of the offender. Through this reviewing the investigator is able to map the offenderâ€™s characteristics such as their criminal behaviors. B. Diagnostic Evaluations (DE) This type of evaluation is a result of mental, medical, and clinical experience by professionals in these fields. These are normally done when asked and not done as a routine type of assessment. 2. Usefulness of Profiling in Determining Offender Identity and Behavioral Patterns. Profiling helps to prove an offenders identity as well as their behavioral patterns. To do this it is done through investigating the crime scene characteristics. An investigator will access whether the characteristics are organized or unorganized as well. Those are also found by doing evaluations such as diagnostic evaluations. A. Offender Identity Through certain aspects of criminal profiling an offenderâ€™s identity can be found out by what type of evidence was left such as a fingerprint or whatÂ DNA was left behind found in such things as blood or hair. B. Behavioral Patterns Through an offenderâ€™s behavioral patterns such as what ligatures were used, weapons used or wound patterns can all show specific behavioral patterns of an offender. 3. Psychopathyâ€™s Role in Criminal Profiling Psychopathy plays a major and drastic role in criminal profiling. Through the behaviors that psychopaths demonstrate profilers can see other specific patterns of offenders. Psychopathy helps profilers in linkage analysis in such ways as offenders behaviors or even the reasoning behind the crime. A. Psychopathy Psychopathy is a personality disorder in which is clarified by meeting certain criteria. 4. Legal and Ethical Issues Within Criminal Profiling Legal and ethical issues have riddled criminal profiling since its existence. There is a committee called the Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists. These issues are not just about the offender. These ethical factors affect innocent individuals and hurt the criminal justice field as a whole. There are legal issues such as forensic fraud which is done by giving a sworn under oath statement or testimony which is false or misleading. 5. Evidence-based, Victim-based Evidence, and Offender-based Forensic Evaluations in Relation to Criminal Profiling These three evaluations are bases in the heart of criminal profiling. These three evaluations all have a certain role in which they have that builds a profile towards an offender. These evaluations help profilers and investigators to better understand all realms to every case they are involved in. These evaluations help to give details in cases that otherwise might not have been found otherwise. A. Evidence Based Forensic Evaluations Evidence based forensic evaluations are often ignored due to many scandals. However this evaluation can often show and link evidence to a case and can also help in being able to have the evidence admissible in court. B. Victim Based Evaluation This evaluation helps investigators and profilers to be able to see inside more so the victims life. This also helps the profilers to better map the victims lifestyle and circumstances in which may have led up to the offense that turned them into a victim. C. Offender Based Forensic Evaluation Through offender based forensic evaluations profilers assess the offenders age, sex, intelligence as well as other offense related behaviors. Through this profilers will learn the aspects of the offender such as their knowledge not only of the crime scene or crime itself, yet of the victims as well as their criminal skill. 6. What is Victimology and Its Role in Criminal Profiling Victimology plays a major role in criminal profiling for numerous reasons. One reason being that of the offender. It helps to answer certain characteristic questions regarding the offender. It gives a very specific as well as accurate outline into the victimâ€™s life and their lifestyle. This helps profilers to also better understand the crime in which the victim was made to endure and suffer from. A. What is Victimoogy â€œForensic victimology is the scientific study of violent crime victimâ€™s for the purposes of addressing investigative and forensic questionsâ€ (Turvey, 2012, Pg.125). 7. Evaluate Predatory Behaviors Based on Crime Scene Behaviors as Illustrated By Evidence Predatory behaviors based on crime scene behaviors as illustrated by evidence helps to further explain more about the offender. This also shows the profiler the offenderâ€™s behaviors as to his choice of victim, point of contact, the offenderâ€™s method of approach and more. Predatory behaviors help profiler to understand the offenders MO or theory of a motive. This behavior shows whether it was sadistic, administrative, power reassurance behavior, or rage/anger retaliatory behavior. These behaviors also show just how serious of a predator the offender is and if they will escalate in the seriousness of their crimes or if they are psychopathic or if they have Anti-social Personality disorder. A. Predatory Behaviors Predatory behaviors are such behaviors as stalking the victim, amount ofÂ planning the crime, use of restraints, as well as the offenders Modus Operandi and whether or not it was acted out. References Association, A. P. (2004). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.Â This source discusses psychopathy in depth. Psychopathy has different attributes as per the different levels. The different levels of psychopathy are criminal and non-criminal which are further discussed and explained. This resource will help to better understand psychopathy. Bateman, A. L., & Salfati, G. C. (2005). Serial homicide: an investigation of behavioral consistency. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 2, 121-144. doi:10.1002/jip.27 This article on serial homicide discusses in depth the different behaviors displayed by the offender. This will help to further support the aspect of predatory behaviors by an offender. This will help to link predatory behaviors and criminal profiling. Crawford, G., & Walters, G. D. (2014). Major mental illness and violent history as predictors of institutional misconduct and recidivism: Main and Interaction Effects. Law and Human Behavior, 38(3), 238-247. doi:10.1037/Ihb0000058 This study accesses different mental disorders and how they relate to crimes. This source will help to show and support behavioral patterns of the criminal offender. In relaying this information we can further link the usefulness of criminal profiling with criminal behaviors. Fontaine, R. G., Fox, A. R., & Kvaran, T. H. (2013, Winter). Psychopathy and culpability: how responsible is the psychopath for criminal wrongdoing? Journal of the American Bar Association, 38(1), 1-26. Retrieved January 28th, 2015 This study and/or source explain in extreme depth about psychopathy and how it is a personality disorder rather than a mental disorder. It helps to further explain some issues prosecuting an offender with psychopathy. This relates to the essay in addressing psychopathy as well as the role psychopathy plays in criminal profiling and criminal behaviors as well.Â Goodey, D. J. (2006). Ethnic profiling, criminal (in) justice and minority populations. Critical Criminology, 207-212. The article written by Goodey further explains different ethical issues within profiling. Such issues discussed are racial profiling, ethnic profiling and police criminal stereotypes. This will help to relate and better understand the legal and ethical issues within the paper and support any findings. Henwood, D., Lamb, R., Lambie, I., & Scott, D. (2006, November). Profiling stranger rapists: Linking offense behaviour to previous criminal histories using a regression model. Journal of Sexual Aggresion, 12(3), 265-275. Retrieved February 2, 2015 This article discusses geographic profiling, evidence and investigative analysis, investigative psychology, and diagnostic evaluations. Offender behaviors and offender criminal patterns are addressed. The article covers as well behavioral characteristics and behavioral patterns as well to also link them to criminal profiling. These are all relevant as to these are core points to be addressed within the paper. Hinch, R., Lubaszka, C. K., & Shon, P. C. (2014). Healthcare serial killers as confident men. Journall of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 11, 1-28. doi:10.1002/jip.1394 This article covers the realm of investigative psychology. Through the study of healthcare serial killers the investigative psychology is discussed. This article will further discuss certain behaviors of the offenders as well which will further help to link the findings and further support the findings within the paper. Ibe, Ph.D, P., Obiyan, Ph.D., E., & Ochie, Ph.D., C. (2012, November). Racial misuse of â€œcriminal profilingâ€ by law enforcement: intentions and implications. African Journal of Criminology and Justice Studies, 6(1 & 2), 177-196. Retrieved January 20th, 2015 The article discusses criminal profiling in depth which will help to further explain and define criminal profiling. The article also discusses several ethical issues within profiling. The resources will help to further support the findings and link the sources to the paper. Lynam, D. R. (2012).Â Assessment of maladaptive variants of five factor model traits. Journal of personality, 1467-6494. This article discusses psychopathy as a personality disorder and delves deeper into the understanding of the disorder. The article explains how it relates to forensic evaluations. This gives the support needed to show the connection between psychopathy and criminal profiling. Marcus, PhD, D. K., & Norris, MA, A. L. (2014). A new measure of attitudes toward sexually predatory tactics and its relation to the triarchic model of psychopathy. Journal of Personality Disorders, 28(2), 247-261. Retrieved February 3rd, 2015 This article covers psychopathâ€™s connection to behavioral traits and personality traits. This links it to the paper at hand due to the fact it further discusses personality traits and behaviors of sexual predators. It further discusses criminal predatory behaviors such as various sexual tactics and other problematic sexual behaviors. Myers, M.D., W. C. (2004). Serial murder by children and adolescents. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 22, 357-374. doi:10.1002/bsl.590 This article discusses six cases of child serial killers, their behavioral characteristics, methods of killing and the crimes of themselves. This article supports the usefulness of criminal profiling in determining offender identity. This article will further support the aspect of evaluations in criminal profiling as well. Quayle, J. (2008). Interviewing a Psychopathic Suspect. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 5, 79-91. doi:10.1002/jip This research article discusses psychopathy as a personality disorder that has certain elements that the offender must meet before being clarified as psychopathic. This further helps to define and understand the role in which psychopathy plays within criminal profiling. This article coincides with other articles to further back up the findings from them as well. Turvey, B. E. (2012). This source is being used to help us further understand victimology and how it works within criminal profiling. Brent Turvey has experience within the criminal profiling field and gives much insight to ethical and legal issues, offender behaviors, and psychopathy. This source helps to fully pull everything together and backs up all other resources and findings as a whole which helps to solidify the paper to be most factual.
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